In the first section of Volume 2, toxicological factors affecting nutritional status are discussed. Medications and alcohol may affect nutritional status. Section 2 provides a discussion of nutrition-related diseases which occur more frequently among the elderly. Cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the U.S. The relative importance of cardiovascular diseases, in terms of all deaths for the given age group, rises steadily with age. The death rate from these diseases is 28% for the middle age group (35 to 44) and is 69% for the old age group (age 75 and above. This reflects the continued progression of artherosclerosis with aging. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. The death rate from cancer also rises steadily with age. The death rate from diabetes mellitus increases progressively with age and more rapidly after the age of 45. The incidence of diabetes mellitus is 0.23% under age 25 and 6.2% over 45.