Nonpolynucleotide Interferon Inducers
This chapter discusses the Pyran (maleic anhydride divinylether) copolymer and tilorone, 2,7-bis[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy] fluoren-9-one. Following the initial discovery of the interferon inducing properties of pyran copolymer and tilorone, several other synthetic polycarboxylates, related to pyran copolymer, as well as fluorenone ethers, esters, and ketones, related to tilorone, have been described. Various non-nucleotide substances are able to stimulate interferon production in vivo animals and or leukocyte cultures. The spectrum of antiviral activity of poly acrylic acid (PAA) and chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM) in cell culture has not been analyzed, but the occasional results obtained with PAA and COAM in vitro did not differ markedly from those obtained with polymethacrylic acid PMAA. Thus, Interferon production does not offer a satisfactory explanation for many of the antiviral, antitumoral, and other biological effects demonstrated by polycarboxylates and tilorone in vivo. The observations seem to refute the likelihood that the antiviral, antitumoral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities of polycarboxylates and tilorone are mediated by interferon production.