Relationships Between Technological Change and Social Development: A Comparative Study
This chapter discusses technological progress that is measured with the use of five indices: one of which conveys capital per worker, another of which reflects scientific manpower and the remainder of which consist of various combinations of indicators related to scientific and technical knowledge. Social development is measured by constructing several other indices such as housing and infrastructure, health, nutrition and culture. The results indicate that adoption of new technical knowledge varies considerably with different levels of development and that technological change both affects and is affected by the level of socioeconomic development. The ultimate sectoral disaggregation rests with the individual industrial firm, and the measurement of technological development then becomes an attempt to assess, in a manner similar to E. P. Hawthorne's, the firm's aptitude in assimilating technology. The chapter assumes that agricultural technology is less easily "purchased" through direct investment by foreign companies and will be qualitatively different with greater use of inputs such as tractors, fertilizers and irrigation.