Process Modeling and Simulation of Extrusion Operations
Process modeling and simulation packages to assess extrusion operations are now commercially available through a number of vendors. This chapter provides the fundamental principles for simulation technology and illustrates the practical application of simulation software for addressing process challenges in the manufacture of amorphous solid dispersions. One-dimensional extrusion process modeling is one of the computational simulation tools available to scientists and engineers studying and developing pharmaceutical extrusion processes. The single dimension of one-dimensional modeling is the position along the axis of material flow within an extruder that is effectively bound on one end by a material inlet (i.e., feed point) and on the other end by a product outlet (i.e., extruder die). The application of multidimensional modeling can also serve as a powerful tool for greater understanding of extrusion operations. Although the ability to simulate an entire extruder with this technique is not possible, the detailed high fidelity understanding for certain sections of the process can be of seminal importance.