Critical Global Citizenship Education in Canada, England, and the United States
This chapter examines some examples of the pedagogical practices that aim to prepare teacher candidates to teach civic education. To critically analyze citizenship and global citizenship education initiatives in some of the teacher education programs in Canada, England, and the United States, it draws upon Andreotti’s spectrum of ‘soft’ to ‘critical’ approaches to guide grouping, comparing, and contrasting the programs reviewed in the chapter. Canada’s range of citizenship education initiatives in teacher certification programs fall on various points along Andreotti’s ‘soft’ to ‘critical’ continuum. In England, The Education Reform Act concentrated curricular development at the national level, reallocating it from a previous design by teachers at the local level. Current teaching methods for citizenship in the United States are described as falling within a continuum of approaches, including those that educate for personally-responsible citizens, for participatory citizens, and for justice-oriented citizens.