Global Citizenship Education in Teacher Education
Global citizenship education’s (GCED) romanticized assumptions have the effect of ignoring two concurrent developments that weaken and reinforce the expansion of GCED. On the one hand, fear and exclusion paradoxically involve the cosmopolitan hope of inclusion on which most GCED models are based. On the other, current calls for expanding GCED-Teacher Education (TEd) are happening in tandem with the increasing consolidation of a Global Educational Reform Movement (GERM) narrative. In the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century there was an explosion of research, policies and programs related to citizenship education. With international projects such as the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study and influential reports like the Crick Report in 1998, the focus of civic education discussion has visibly moved towards global citizenship education. Within the GERM neoliberal hegemony, the focus and agendas have shifted to financially driven and assessed programs of school reform with direct consequences for TEd.