chapter
Introduction
WithIrene Zempi, Imran Awan
Pages 7

Islamophobic hate crimes have increased significantly in the West following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (usually referred to as 9/11) in the US. As numerous commentators have argued in detail, since 9/11, a particular anxiety towards Muslim ‘others’ has led to suspicion and outright hostility towards Muslims in the West. Following the attacks on 7 July 2005 in the UK (usually referred to as 7/7) these anxieties intensified. Muslims in the UK faced significantly heightened levels of religious and racial hatred, manifested as hate crimes and incidents. More recently, the rhetoric surrounding Donald Trump’s election and presidency, Brexit, and the rise of far-right groups, both nationally and internationally, have promoted a climate where hate crime, and specifically Islamophobic hate crime, have become ‘legitimised’. Also, the rise in Islamophobic attacks following the recent ISIS-inspired terrorist attacks in the UK, France, Belgium and Germany means that it is now an opportune moment for us to turn our attentions to the ways in which this form of hate crime might be understood, measured and addressed at a national and international level.