chapter  29
Islamophobia and the radical right in Europe
Nostalgia or alternative utopia?
WithAristotle Kallis
Pages 11

The ideology of the radical right may be extremely hard to pin down and classify, ranging from extreme social conservatism to ‘soft’ populism with often liberal hues to violent activism; and from seemingly respectable, suave agents of parliamentary democracy to groups with para-military characteristics or even terrorist clandestine links (Mudde 2016). The agents of the radical right seem to disagree on at least as many diagnoses and strategies as those that they profess to share. Yet, in the last decade, strong points of ideological and political convergence have started to crystallise, turning the radical right into a truly transnational European and occasionally trans-Atlantic force with ever-stronger presence, noise, and impact. The topicality of a new range of issues, such as immigration, international terrorism, national sovereignty, globalisation, and the effects of the worldwide economic crisis, have created a political milieu that has allowed the radical right not only to thrive but also to unite its otherwise disparate and fragmented forces (Politico 2015).