chapter  4
A multidimensional model of understanding Islamophobia
A comparative practical analysis of the US, Canada, UK and France
WithSaied Reza Ameli, Arzu Merali
Pages 16

Islamophobia is an extension of xenophobia, otherisation, social discrimination and racialisation. Islamophobia is neither simply the violations experienced by Muslims nor is it simply (and or in addition) policy or structure that results in the negative representation of Islam, Muslims and Islamic governance. It is not a new phenomenon, nor is it one that only affects Muslims. The emergence of the instant communication industry, global media, social and network media has reinforced the power of xenophobic content. In practice, understanding Islamophobia requires a wide, multidisciplinary approach. In this chapter, the multidimensional model of understanding Islamophobia (MMUI) will be explained and according to the MMUI a secondary analysis of data related to Islamophobic behaviour against Muslims in USA, Canada, UK and France will be discussed.