This chapter addresses some protection levels, concentrating on particularly sensitive sea area matters, and identifies trends, controversies and issues in the protection of the marine environment from the risk of vessel-source pollution. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has played a critical role in ensuring that international standards are adopted on the basis of principles agreed upon in instruments adopted at international diplomatic conferences. The outcome of the debate and the manner through which IMO member states settle their differences could have far-reaching implications on marine environmental protection measures and international navigation rights in zones of national jurisdiction. The protective action to be taken must be in accordance with international rules and standards adopted through the IMO and may include routeing schemes to minimize threats to local interests. The Paracas National Reserve was designated a Ramsar Convention site because of its great biodiversity and a regional reserve for migratory birds, thus making it unique, exceptional and highly sensitive.