Russia has undergone massive changes over the past 15 years, the most important one being the transition from a socialist centralized planned economy to a capitalist market economy. From the early thirteenth century until 1480, Russia was subjected to almost 300 years of Mongolian rule, a very formative period for the following centuries of Russian history. This introduction presents an overview of keyconcepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes the historical, geographic, political, social and economic background of Russia. It discusses the influence of national politics on HR practices, and then analyzes the areas of leadership, control, and trust, investigates further the particular HR-practices in virtual organizations and concludes with a case study on new HR practices implemented in a big steel plant in Russia. The book discusses key HRM issues such as recruitment and selection, training and development, payment and compensation. It deals with various HR problems encountered by multinational companies working in Russia.