This chapter examines how the system of professional training shipbuilding industry of St Petersburg was changing, and what attempts are being undertaken to solve the problem. It overviews the situation in professional training and retraining in the shipbuilding industry during Soviet times. The chapter identifies the problems of professional education and the retraining of personnel that typify the current situation in shipbuilding and are consequences of socioeconomic reforms. It presents the new trends which have arisen in recent years in the system of professional education and in particular, to the new forms of interactions at institutional level between the state, employers and trade unions. The chapter describes the situation that has been developed in the sphere of professional training for shipbuilding. It explores the data obtained from the comparative study of social partnership systems in shipbuilding industries of Russia and Germany conducted by authors in 2003-04, and information obtained from the long-term collaboration between CISR researchers.