This chapter looks into the relationships between 960 Russian workers' perceived control over their immediate environment and their level of alienation. It analyzes the relationships between the corporation's ownership type, the supervisor's leadership style, the worker's job and personal characteristics and the workers' level of alienation. The chapter investigates, among others, the relationships between leadership and workers' alienation in Russian enterprises. It applies a variation on Fiedler's, House's and Hersey and Blanchard's interpretation of the contingencies of effective leadership and the Blake and Mouton measure of leadership effectiveness. Comparative studies of public and private organizations that have been conducted in Western societies have reached the conclusion that there are some fundamental differences between the characteristics of the two types of organizations. The job characteristics model identifies five job characteristics that define the motivating potential of a job: skills variety, task identity, task significance, task autonomy, and task feedback.