This chapter discusses the heritage framework in the states and territories. The perception of heritage by Australians changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Many people began to appreciate that even if European-Australian heritage is not very old, it is nevertheless very important. At the same time, many people recognised that there are important non-Anglo-Celtic and even non-European aspects to our non-indigenous heritage, aspects that have arisen from the increasingly multicultural and migrant-based nature of Australia's population. The Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) includes the Heritage Division (HD), which in turn supports the Australian Heritage Council (AHC). The Australian Heritage Commission was established in 1976, following the Hope Inquiry into the National Estate. Federal environment and heritage legislation was completely overhauled between 1998 and 2003, due to the Federal Government's desire to rationalise it and give as much responsibility as possible to the states.