This chapter explains what the sociological category "civil society" meant. The living world of people in pre-modern Bulgarian society was very different and in some respects incomparable with the living world of modern Bulgarian society. The "hyper-industrialization" of Bulgaria, which prior to establishment of totalitarian socialism was an underdeveloped, agrarian country, was linked to major investments in science that were impressive for a country of its size. The water crisis caused a stormy public debate in Bulgarian society and was focused on attitudes of social groups, political forces and the public at large regarding water resources and their utilization. In pre-modern Bulgarian society we already explained the existence of traditional culture and ethics of water. Yet the building of new culture and ethics of water in a contemporary society requires all members of the community to be well informed citizens.