Bulgaria suffered considerable economic damage in the past because of frequent droughts and floods. For this reason, the attempts to implement efficient water management strategies date back to the end of the 19th century, parallel to the formation of the new Bulgarian state. In order to find an optimum strategy for water resource management during conditions of drought, it is important to know the unique conditions of water resources, water supplies, and water use systems during the period. The Law on Water Syndicates had a positive impact on water management by concentrating all water issues under the authority of one institution and by creating effective regulation mechanisms. The planning documents in the field of water resources were drawn up by municipalities, districts and for the entire country. It is obvious that the management of water resources in Bulgaria is undergoing a deep crisis. It suffers from numerous shortcomings and needs a radical change in its philosophy, principles and approaches.