Three continuous drought periods emerged in Bulgaria: 1904-1908, 1945-1953, 1982-1994. Throughout the 1982-1994 drought, a 31% fall in Bulgarian runoff was registered compared to the data for the 1890-1996 period. The 1982-1994 period saw a rise of mean annual temperature by approximately 2°C in the low-lying forest zone. The drought period of 1982-1994 in Bulgaria had serious economic consequences. Changes have also been observed in the behavior of mammal pests whose populations are on the increase in periods of warming. The drought period demonstrated the importance of setting water use priorities. During the drought period, the theme of water was increasingly raised by the media. Finally, the drought and ensuing water crisis brought to light the challenges of centralized versus decentralized resource planning and of center/urban versus periphery/rural priorities in resource acquisition. It was, in some dimensions, a challenge to the new democracy in Bulgaria.