Russian information security and warfare
This chapter focuses on information warfare in the information technology (IT) sphere. When it comes to formulating and implementing information and communication technology policy, there is an intricate web of responsible authorities and decision-making bodies. The Ministry for Digital Development is the policymaking and implementing organ within the sphere of IT, electronic communication, mass communication, mass media and processing of personal data. Russian official documents and statements are rich on details on the need to defend itself against information warfare. Russia’s Foreign Policy Concept explicitly mentions ‘soft power’ as one of the methods of achieving foreign policy objectives. Russia’s broad definition of information warfare and security provides it with a holistic view of what it considers not only threats to the country’s national security but also an extensive toolbox for enhancing its security. Russia has also pursued its own vision on how to establish international information security especially within the United Nations.