Information-psychological warfare in Russian security strategy
This chapter analyses assumptions underlying the contemporary Russian debate on information warfare. The dictionary of information-psychological operations published in 2011 provides a good starting point for the analysis of concepts guiding Russian thinking on information warfare. It contains, as the title suggests, terminological explanations for the phenomenon and technologies relevant for waging information warfare. The information security doctrine identifies risks, dangers and threats to Russian national security in four distinct spheres: state defence; state and public security; economy, science, technology and education; and in the sphere of strategic stability and equal strategic partnership. The deep-rooted image of Russia as a ‘besieged fortress’ is an important part of the argumentation on information security. The conceptualisation of information warfare as a counter-struggle implies that Russia is in a defensive posture. The underlying assumption is that information warfare is a struggle for geopolitical power between state actors.