Models of game intelligence and creativity in sport
This chapter provides an overview of the current state of the art on decision-making and its acquisition as it relates to sports. A comparison across sports shows that decision-making varies in importance within the respective performance structure. There is often an arbitrary use of the terms “decision-making” and “strategy”, which can be observed both in sport practice and in sports science. Strategy is defined with respect to long-term oriented measures, such as training and competition planning and preparation, whereas decision-making relates to more situational-based and in-the-moment problem-solving processes. In game or combat/opposition sports, decision-making has been differentiated into two areas of competence: divergent tactical thinking/game creativity and convergent tactical thinking/game intelligence. Game intelligence models try to describe and explain the ability of convergent tactical thinking by using process models to select an appropriate solution for a specific game situation.