Influence of smoking on proximal femur bone density in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan
The Singh index is the classification of trabecular patterns on the proximal femur, which can be seen with the use of X-rays. Since 1976, smoking has been linked to a decrease in bone density. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Haji Adam Malik Medan Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. Samples were divided into two groups of smokers and non-smokers, with 43 persons in each group. The Singh index value was evaluated from pelvic X-rays undertaken within both samples. There was a significant correlation between smoking and the Singh index value (p = 0.002). The duration of smoking directly affected the Singh index (p = 0.001), but there was no correlation between the cigarette type (p = 0.932) and the frequency of smoking (p = 0.259) with the Singh index. It was found that smoking has a significant correlation with the Singh index value, where the smoking group had a lower Singh index value compared to the non-smoking group.