chapter  32
3 Pages

Influence of smoking on proximal femur bone density in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan

WithS. Ibrahim, M.B. Rizaldy, H. Hanafiah

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The Singh index is the classification of trabecular patterns on the proximal femur, which can be seen with the use of X-rays. Since 1976, smoking has been linked to a decrease in bone density. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Haji Adam Malik Medan Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. Samples were divided into two groups of smokers and non-smokers, with 43 persons in each group. The Singh index value was evaluated from pelvic X-rays undertaken within both samples. There was a significant correlation between smoking and the Singh index value (p = 0.002). The duration of smoking directly affected the Singh index (p = 0.001), but there was no correlation between the cigarette type (p = 0.932) and the frequency of smoking (p = 0.259) with the Singh index. It was found that smoking has a significant correlation with the Singh index value, where the smoking group had a lower Singh index value compared to the non-smoking group.