In recent decades, criminal investigations and prosecutions for conflict-related violations have increased. Cases have been pursued in international institutional venues such as ad hoc war crimes tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court (ICC), as well as by ordinary and specialized national courts, some domestic and others in foreign countries. 1 These cases vary on several key dimensions, including the types of conflicts involved; the length of time that has passed between when violations were allegedly perpetrated and criminal cases are initiated; the ranks of the individuals being prosecuted; the authorities undertaking the prosecution or investigation of these acts; and the outcomes. This chapter profiles legal activity during 2015 (as well as certain key developments in 2016) in the context of cases involving crimes under international conventions – i.e., war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and/or torture – that were ongoing or concluded, plus situations in which such crimes were being investigated by a prosecuting authority. 2 At least 60 countries are involved in cases profiled below, as locations where violations occurred and/or those responsible are being prosecuted.