The number of active armed conflicts reached a 25-year peak in 2015, making this another bleak year for international peace and security. These circumstances reinforce the impression that the decline of war, heralded less than a decade ago, is not only halted but reversed. The number of new or recurring (vs. ongoing) conflicts was also at a record high. A positive development is that fatalities fell by 10% relative to 2014. Yet this improvement is set against a backdrop where annual conflict fatalities have been far higher in each of the last few years than was the case from 2001–2012.