The Science of Urbanization and the Open City
Good urbanization, as outlined in the New Urban Agenda, requires a three decade time horizon, a focus on value creation, capture and sharing and a pact between all levels of government. Governments must urgently guide urban configuration, particularly in fast-growing cities. This requires a systemic approach, that integrates municipal finance, urban planning and design and urban regulation to produce good urbanization. In parallel, open-system thinking and designing allow cities to evolve and change. The over-specification of form and function in modernist urban planning has yielded brittle cities that are susceptible to decay. Urban time evolves slowly, so cities need to be designed on the basis of open-system thinking. The chapter extracts from and synthesizes recent work by Serge Salat, Marco Kamiya, Loeiz Bourdic, Richard Sennett, Amica Dall, Giles Smith, Adam Kaasa, Ricky Burdett, Shlomo Angel, Anita Berrizbeitia, John Bingham-Hall, Jean-Louis Missika, and Gianpaolo Baiocchi.