Microbial in-situ mitigation of arsenic contamination in plants and soils
Arsenic (As) is present in the environment and poses threat to humans worldwide, mostly through food, water, and air. Excessive use of As-based pesticides and indiscriminate disposal of domestic (biosolids) and industrial (timber, tannery, paints, electroplating, etc.) wastes, as well as mining activities, have resulted in widespread anthropogenic As contamination of soils and water (Table 6.1). However, the presence of geogenic As in groundwater, a main source of drinking and irrigation water in many countries primarily in South Asia, has drawn much attention of the scientific community. Worldwide, more than 100 million people are exposed to excessive amounts of As in water. Arsenic is thus a geogenic contaminant-driving from natural sources, which is dissolved in groundwater and surface water through redox dissolution.