Specific learning disorders (SLDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders involving biological origins, which disrupt the normal acquisition of learning. SLDs are caused and influenced by factors such as genetic predisposition, neurological processing patterns, and environmental factors. The learning and emotional challenges associated with SLDs can be successfully managed if individuals are provided appropriate accommodations and support, and if their achievements in other areas are nurtured and celebrated. Ben was born in Sydney. Ben's developmental milestones were reported to be within normal limits. Ben's performance indicates problematic reading fluency. Reading and spelling difficulties may lower motivation to practice reading and spelling outside the classroom, reducing opportunities to improve literacy skills. Observing Ben's performance on the administered tests, it appears that Ben demonstrates reasonable phonological processing skill. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory is an empirically validated psychometric theory of cognitive abilities. Many assessment tools are limited in measuring CHC abilities identified as important factors in literacy acquisition.