Aurel Kolnai and Franz Neumann
Aurel Kolnai perceptively recognised the threat posed by National Socialism and presented the modern Western world with a fundamental alternative. This chapter addresses the main normative points in his criticism of National Socialism and systematise them in the form of an opposition between moral–political formations: Western universalism versus volkisch particularism. It deals with the main points from his analysis of the totalitarian monopolistic economy and then go on to comment on his politico-legal structural discussions in light of Kolnai. Franz Neumann characterises the National Socialist economy in terms of two particular features: it is a monopolistic economy and a command economy. Like Kolnai, Neumann worked out as early as 1935 that the National Socialist system was heading towards an imperialistic war, to the extent that Neumann can see this view confirmed by his later analysis. The entanglement of National Socialism and monopoly capitalism represents a subsequent analytical task, which is primarily focused on the resulting power structure.