The purpose of this book is to inform policy-makers, practitioners, and researchers about the design and practice of regional development across Canada. At the same time, it contributes to the international literature and discourse on regional development and new regionalism. This opening chapter outlines the main objectives for the book, along with the research questions we seek to answer. We briefly describe new regionalism and review related literature that is connected to rural development and the rural–urban relationships that shape regional resilience and development in the Canadian context. The remainder of the chapter briefly outlines the contents of the book to guide the reader.