Need area 5: households
This chapter seeks to generate a 'bird's eye' view of the state of the art of product-service systems (PSS) in the sector households. It describes a few examples of existing PSS in the sector. In most European countries, the number of households has increased over the past decade while the rise in population has been far lower. Little is known about the approach and development of the present PSS in households. However, it is evident that most of the PSS that are currently in use in households originated from after-sales services, shared distribution networks, hiring/leasing and contracting people. The chapter presents an analysis of trends and developments in households. It also describes general social trends that will have an impact on households and specific trends with regard to households. Trends that influence household consumption patterns can be divided into three categories: social, economic and technological.