Product-services and sustainability
This chapter analyses the sustainability potential of each of the eight types of product-service systems (PSS). PSS may contribute to social sustainability in two ways: they might either reduce negative social aspects such as unemployment, or increase the well-being of customers and participants in the PSS. The evaluation for product-related advice and consultancy is roughly the same as for the former situation. Again, the main value lies in the fact that the PSS provider might suggest all kinds of optimisation of product use, which in the end can lead to incremental reductions in environmental impacts. Product renting and sharing does not change the technical system radically, but does so with regard to the method of consumption. These PSS imply that the same product is used more intensively. The analysis for product pooling is similar to that for renting and sharing, with one major difference. Product pooling implies that the same product is used at the same time by more users.