The Fading Myth of the Noble Scientist
Most scientists believe that fraud in science is rare or nonexistent. Faking data is not the only form of serious research misconduct. Plagiarism and misappropriation of ideas are generally also recognized as serious transgressions. The computer is the ultimate embodiment of the Myth of the Noble Scientist. In 1988 and 1989, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation each published in the Federal Register formal sets of regulations regarding scientific fraud. An Office of Scientific Integrity (OSI) has been established within NIH. OSI is careful not to use the word fraud, preferring the term seien-tific misconduct, defined in the Final Rule issued by the Public Health Service as: "fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, and conducting".