Praxiology, Action Research, and Critical Systems Heuristics
This chapter aims to use of planning as a basic term that is common to praxiology, action research, and critical systems heuristics. Practitioners of critical systems heuristics, finally, take a middle ground between these two positions. Thus for critical systems heuristics there is no such thing as a definitive, unequivocal judgment on the rationality of an action, whether based on science or on people; a better ideal for dealing rationally with the problem of rational action is critique. Critical systems heuristics proposes such a critical path. Critical systems heuristics aims to provide a clear, generic, and compelling way to do so. As compared to praxiology, critical systems heuristics concentrates itself primarily on its mentioned critical core business, the "critical turn." The critically-heuristic core concept in this regard is the concept of boundary judgments. Critical systems heuristics seems as yet little known among praxiologists and action researchers, although it might serve as a useful complement to both approaches.