This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book emphasizes that intercultural encounters need to be recognized from a perspective that is alert to their complexity. It explains concepts of otherness, mediation, and transformation. Transforming otherness can be understood or defined in at least two alternative fashions: either "ways in which otherness could be transformed", or "ways in which otherness can transform". The book provides knowledge about the non-European world and were informative about this other world. It discusses missionaries were used as socio-material, things to gather around. The book describes a unidirectional cultural encounter between a secure local culture and an exciting foreign and adventurous world. It also emphasizes the need for further research into the role of cultural mediation processes in order to generate comprehensive perspectives on the multifaceted character of cultural mediation processes.