Military Bases in the Third World
Just as the United States, however, attempted to reverse the decline of its military access, many Third World nations—individually and collectively—were beginning explicitly and loudly to raise the issue of superpower basing presence as an aspect of dependency. The Soviets, too, have crucial requirements for technical facilities in the Third World, despite the fact that they have relied on mobile seagoing platforms far more than the United States. Further, it should not be forgotten that, particularly in the Soviet case, access is sought throughout the Third World for activities that, while falling into a gray area between the civilian and military, may indeed have purposes less benign than advertised. The United States has achieved some savings in its overseas costs during the past decade by phasing out facilities in Iran, Taiwan, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Libya, and several other countries. But in some cases—many in Europe—base operating costs appear to have escalated significantly.