chapter  2
Populisms in Europe
Leftist, rightist, centrist and paternalist–nationalist challengers
ByZsolt Enyedi, Martin Mölder
Pages 41

The chapter demonstrates that populist parties group to leftist, centrist, neoliberal and paternalistic-nationalistic types. The leftist populists are clearly distinct from the rest both culturally and economically, while the borders between the latter three are fluid. The prototypical populist parties tend to be right-wing on the cultural dimension, but more likely than the non-populists to combine this orientation with leftist views on the economy. The paternalist–nationalist populists as well as the left populists have recently turned towards more emphasis on the national way of life. Populism does not explicitly challenge the constitutional order of liberal democracy, but there is some evidence of a tendency towards increased Euroscepticism for both populists and non-populists.