Stress, Health, and Gender
The individual costs associated with stress are staggering in terms of personal health costs, lost health, lost income, damaged interpersonal relations both at home and at work, and loss of interest in life. Furthermore, worker stress is extremely costly to organizations. Accidents cost U.S. companies over $32 billion each year, and approximately 75 to 85% of these are due to stress at work (J.W.Jones, 1984; Matteson & Ivancevich, 1987). Heart disease (which we discuss later in the chapter) is associated with work/ family stress and is responsible for approximately 135 million workdays lost annually. Sixty percent of long-term employee disability cases result from psychological or psychosomatic problems, and $26 billion is spent annually on disability payments and medical bills. Both organizations and individuals lose opportunities due to stress (Matteson & Ivancevich, 1987).