Teaching Educational Psychology to the Implicit Mind
With the dominance of cognitive perspectives in education and psychology has come an interest in the thinking of teachers. Since the 1980s, research has burgeoned on teachers’ knowledge and beliefs; reviews are plentiful (e.g., Borko & Putnam, 1996; Calderhead, 1996; Clark & Peterson, 1986; Fenstermacher, 1994; Kagan, 1990, 1992; Nespor, 1987; Pajares, 1992; Rentel, 1994; Richardson, 1994, 1996). Researchers have investigated both explicit and implicit beliefs of preservice, novice, and experienced teachers. Although some investigators have sought to identify beliefs (cf. Weinstein, 1988, 1989), others have examined how knowledge and beliefs affect learning to teach (cf. Hollingworth, 1989) or instruction in particular subjects (Richardson, 1994).