In the 1960s, Stanley Milgram (1963, 1964, 1965), a Yale University professor and researcher, conducted a series of experiments to study the phenomenon of obedience to an authority ﬁgure. To ﬁnd participants, he placed an ad in the local New Haven newspaper offering to pay $4.50 to men to participate in a scientiﬁc study of memory and learning being conducted at the University. The participants reported to Milgram’s laboratory where they met a scientist dressed in a lab coat and another participant in the study, a middle-aged man named Mr. Wallace. Mr. Wallace was actually a coexperimenter. The participants did not know this and thought he was just another participant in the experiment.