Personality and Organizational Culture
Personality has been central to the study of psychology. The constructand such related constructs as values and interests-in some sense deﬁnes psychology for it is the framingof the internalworldofpeople thatdifferentiates psychology from all other sciences. Personality conjures up thoughts about needs that people attempt to gratify (e.g., Maslow, 1954), the preferences people have for behaving in ambiguous or relatively unstructured situations (e.g., McCaulley, 1990), and the internal enduring interests and values of people that serve as guides or standards for their behavior (e.g., Holland, 1997; Schwarz, 1997). In what follows, we will use the generic term personality to refer to all of these classes of individual attributes that give form, structure, and consistency to people’s behavior over time and situations.