chapter  10
Many Are Called, But Few Are Chosen: Moving Beyond the Modal Levels in Normal Development
Pages 26

A troublesome and unresolved paradox has long beset developmental theories

of the cognitive structural type: The claim for universality of the processes and

sequences of development contradicts the failure ofmost developing individu-

als to reach the topmost levels or stages of developmental progress. Thus, only

about one third of adolescents or young adults reach the stage of full formal op-

erations (Neimark, 1985; Piaget, 1970, 1972; Shayer, Demetriou, & Pervez,

1988). Only a small number of Kohlberg’s respondents reached the

postconventional stages (Colby, Kohlberg, Gibbs,&Lieberman, 1983; Snarey

& Keljo, 1991), and only a minority achieved Loevinger’s (1979) integrated

level of ego functioning.