Processes of self-regulation pervade many aspects of human functioning, and emotions are involved in many different ways. In this chapter we focus on two of them that have emerged in our research program. The first focuses on negative emotions. We show that concern over regulating negative emotions, especially in attempting to escape bad moods and emotions, often takes priority over other forms of self-regulation, often thereby impairing these other efforts. The second focuses on positive emotions. We suggest that positive emotion has special power to increase the self’s capacity for all manner of self-regulation, especially when that capacity has been depleted through recent use.