This chapter describes English Language Teaching (ELT) in Japan through its historical and pedagogical aspects. It has been shown that there is a difference in perception between the learners and the policymakers in terms of its objectives. Although many learners are motivated to study English in order to pass a college entrance examination or to obtain a good job, the policymakers continue to stress that communication and international understanding are the major purposes for learning English. This gap continues to create instability in the field of ELT in Japan. Japan continues to attract large numbers of native speakers of English as English teachers in Japan. This could be to the detriment of local English teachers. Despite a huge investment of resources in ELT, the evidence strongly suggests that English will remain a language used mainly for examination purposes within Japan and for interaction with foreigners outside. The Japan Exchange Teachers (JET) program invites youth from overseas, mainly English-speaking countries.