Plasmas are often used in a subtractive manner to remove material, i.e., etch a substrate. However, while etching a material, microscale and nanoscale roughness may be formed, with varying morphology, such as cones, hills, fibrils, nanowires, and others. These micro- or nanostructures may be random or quasi-ordered; for the random structures, the term micro-nanotexturing is used, while for the ordered, the term plasma-directed organization is often reserved. Nevertheless, both are manifestations of the capability of the plasma to direct the assembly of nanostructures on the surface being etched. We present an introduction to plasma-directed assembly or plasma nanoassembly during etching mostly of soft materials, and we give a flavor of the many possible applications focusing mainly on life sciences.