chapter  1
Integration of Diﬀerent Epidemiologic Perspectives and Applications to Spatial Epidemiology
BySara Wagner Robb, Sarah E. Bauer, John E. Vena
Pages 36

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Annotated Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

The ability of epidemiology to determine the relationships between health and various risk factors, especially environmental insults, has become exceedingly diﬃcult. The multifactorial nature of disease and the diversity of the insults, which include biologic, physical, social, and cultural factors, combined with genetic susceptibility, suggest the need to incorporate comprehensive perspectives of multidisciplinary epidemiologic investigation. Further, there is a need to utilize tools, such as geographic information systems (GIS) and other geospatial methods, which can integrate multilevel, spatial, and temporal factors and can help limit the potential for misclassiﬁcation of exposure estimates. The multifactorial nature of disease and availability of geospatial tools encourage collaboration and creativity in the ﬁeld of environmental epidemiology. The recent technology advances in smart phone and GIS utilization and the diﬀusion of innovation now oﬀer unprecedented opportunities for applications in public health.