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CONCLUSION

Up to the end of the 188Os, pastoralism used informal ad hoc procedures of farm recording based on needs as they arose. However, with the advent of accountancy firms promoting their services and the rise of pastoral lending, farmers adopted accountancy practices, necessitated by the developing tax system and death duties, to meet the requirements of their banks and, where appropriate, to assist in the administration of rural estates. By the end of the 19th century, dissatisfied litigants contested apportionments of receipts between life tenant and remainderman in the courts. In this respect, case law in Australia regarding the general administration of estates clearly followed English precedent in the context of the trustees' duty in the application of capital and income. Trustees administering estates applied this principle in general on the basis of the "annual harvest' theory, that annual increases should be received by the life tenant. l 30 However, in the rural context in Australia, the courts adopted rulings consistent with the interests of "settler capitalism'. In effect, this created a new dichotomy/approach that put the interests of the remainderman first, namely, that the division of minimal support for a widow against the interests of the remainderman should be maintained. This outcome reflected the interests of male continuity of farming and that farming was regarded as a male occupation. Women as life tenants were regarded as merely the conduit between male generations.131