chapter  5
1 Pages


CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES Abnormal number of ureters

Though the normal anatomical arrangement is to have a single ureter for each kidney, double or even triple ureters may be present as draining a single kidney. The commonest variety, a double ureter, may be incomplete, with the two upper segments joined to form a single ureter prior to its entry into the bladder; or complete, with two separate ureters entering the bladder at two different sites. In such complete duplication, the ureter draining the upper portion of the kidney enters the bladder below that draining the lower portion.