CRICOPHARYNGEAL SPASM AND NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE PHARYNX CAUSING SWALLOWING DIFFICULTY INTRODUCTION
As has been explained in earlier chapters, the cricopharyngeus muscle may develop increased tone and failure to relax in front of a bolus of swallowed food, with resulting dysphagia. Sometimes this results from reflux disease where acid regurgitation from the stomach into the lower oesophagus causes reflex cricopharyngeal spasm. In other cases there is no explanation. Spasm of cricopharyngeus predisposes to development of pharyngeal pouch (Chapter 60).