The nape flap
A new era in head and neck reconstruction developed with the discovery of myocutaneous flaps. These flaps consist of an area of muscle and overlying skin, supplied by a large, named artery which can be mobilised with the flap so that the entire flap may be moved as a one-stage procedure. Myocutaneous flaps are extremely robust and reliable and have been extensively used in rehabilitation of large head and neck defects over the last 20 years. There are two important myocutaneous flaps currently used in head and neck reconstruction, and derived respectively from the pectoralis major muscle and the latissimus dorsi muscle.