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Legal issues

In either form of ethmoid surgery, CSF leakage, intracranial bleeding, injury to the optic nerve (with loss of vision on the affected side) or bleeding from the internal carotid artery indicates inadequate technique. In intranasal ethmoidectomy, bruising around the eye post-operatively indicates injury to the orbital periosteum, but this is an operative complication with no adverse consequences, unless there has been gross interference with the orbital contents leading to impairment of vision or permanent, severe double vision. Except under those circumstances, negligence is not implied.