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THE EFFECTS OF THE CONSERVATIVE REFORMS

The changes, introduced in the 1980s to further regulate and limit political expenditure by trade unions, have clearly been counter-productive.56 The assumption that many of the votes would go against the retention of a political fund has been proved to be woefully inaccurate. At the end of 1982, only 60 out of 462 unions had political funds.57 By 1987, not only had all the unions that were required to reballot done so successfully, but 20 more unions had balloted to create new political funds.58